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Latin Lesson 1

Latin Parts of Speech Overview

The language of Latin was used by the ancient Romans with the same parts of speech as English.

The Classification of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are all present. Like English, numerals are expressed in nouns milia (thousands), adjectives unus (one), and adverbs semel (once). There are no articles in Latin.

Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns are grouped in Declensions which agree in Number and Case. Latin has a total of five declensions.

SINGULAR: puella (girl)
PLURAL:     puellae (girls)

Case  Total of 6
Nominative, The subject case
Vocative, The case of address
Accusative, the object case
Genitive, the of case
Dative, The to or for case
Ablative, the from, by, in or with case

In Latin, Genders are distinguished as male, female, and neuter. 

Verbs The Latin Verb has:
The Finite Verb
THREE PERSONS - First, Second, and Third
TWO NUMBERS - Singular and Plural
SIX TENSES - Present, Future, Past Imperfect, Perfect, Future Perfect, and Pluperfect
THREE MOODS - Indicative (Verbs where the action is done by the subject eg. The teacher teaches the students, Imperative (Commands), Subjunctive (Verbs where the action is done to the subject eg. The teacher is being taught by the students, wishes, exhortations)
The Infinite Verb
Infinitives - verbal substantives
Three Participles - verbal adjectives
The Gerund and Gerundive
Two Supines - verbal substantives
The Voices - Active, Passive

Irregular Verbs: There are always exceptions to every rule and the same goes for verbs.

Vocabulary list:
puella - girl
ancilla - slave girl
puer - boy
soror - sister
pater - father
mater - mother
canis - dog
cena - dinner
cibus - food
fortis - brave
voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum - I call
moneo, monere, monui, monentum - I warn
rego, regere, rexi, rectum - I rule
audio, audire, audivi, auditum - I hear
capio, capere, cepi, captum - I capture


Easter Break

So I find it's now time to start anew and in light of my current situation of teaching a friend some Latin, I may involve posts on grammar revision and exercises and view this journal as a notebook of sorts. During the course of these school holidays I have not done all that much, my main activities being that of finally completing Dragon Age: Origins, and starting DA2, finding it blinding in it's dazzle and basically refused to go back to it due to the lack of Morrigan, plot and a weird looking Zevran on Dragon Age Wiki. Now that this gameplay is through, I have began having marathon viewings of various dramas, mainly The Nine Lives of Chloe King (an utter disappointment but there is a pretty boy who sulks and tries to look dishevelled and hot as with all the current YA dramas, it seems), Downton Abbey (which is really pretty, and shiny, and oh soooo dramatic!!! I love the purple old granny who happens to be from Pooter, she's awesome. There's the other matter of the soundtrack which does everything right and breaks your heart just as the players hearts are broken. My favourite so far is Mr Bates), and Sherlock Holmes which is so far turning out to be really quite good. Still, I don't like the jaggered movements of the shots, but I guess that can't be helped with a thriller type series like this. Next on the list will be Castle, Nikita, and Game of Thrones. Oh and I've also re-read a book from a while back. It was really heartbreaking and really well developed and upon my second reading, I found I noticed the smaller details which I didn't pick up before. I found I picked up references I didn't quite catch before and it surprises me just how quickly memory fades.     

Happy Birthday!

Happy Birthday Sammy!

I made my sister a Stargate birthday cake.

It'll be locked once again after a week passes so make sure you see it soon!

We should go and do some work now...


I've read through everyone's journals and I have stolen some quiz-type things from anitalittleone .

What type of Fae are you?

Yay for Elves!

Goes off to collect more fun icons!

Black Jewels LAND!

Sammy, don't fight it.

Stupid Lappies!!!


The big, powerful, fatties decide to give us a lappie and even put MSN on it for us but can you use it??? NOOOO!

And why not?


So? Just download it!




Dude: It has over 120G of blah.....
Comp: 1mb left....
me: T________T



Do you really want me to resort to paint?


So now I'm left with a Windows 7 comp with mircrosoft word 2007 that blocks everything and nothing. You can still get onto download sites but you can't use the things that are needed.

Why don't you try and install photoshop?


Why can't you download it??


Surely there must be a way?



I think I'll actually leave this as public for all to see.

Stolen from anitalittleone...

So, seitai, your LiveJournal reveals...

You are... 0% unique, 0% peculiar, 0% interesting, 0% normal and 100% herdlike (partly because you, like everyone else, enjoy tennis). When it comes to friends you are lonely. In terms of the way you relate to people, you believe in give and take. Your writing style (based on a recent public entry) is intellectual.

Your overall weirdness is: 15

(The average level of weirdness is: 29.
You are weirder than 30% of other LJers.)

Find out what your weirdness level is!

Wow. How depressing.




^_^ Click!!! Is VERY cute!

I can't wait until the yearly tests are over. Then it'll be CHRISTMAS~


New Zealand

I went to New Zealand with my family in the Summer Holidays. We stayed with the Tourist guide for two weeks and had the best of pretty much everything. Mum knew the boss of the agency so it was really fun. The most enjoyable ting was when I went horse riding. The horse I was on was called Charlie and he was sooooo CUTE!!! ^_^ Even though he ate from the trees and grass every two seconds... ~_~ Other than that I wasn't scared at all...

...actually I take that back...

I did kinda scream when Charlie stumbled and I also wanted to get of really badly... Charlie was really good after the hour was up. Anyway we saw a real black pig there too he was really cute untill he was in the way... There was also a goat that never nibbled me but went for other people who we didn't know. >_< When we had walked around the track and came back Sammy and I went for a trot but I stopped after a few meters.

Another thing I've got to say is that in New Zealand everything is really expensive except for one thing.


Thats right!





First, his body is taken to the tent known as 'ibu' or the 'place of purification'. There the embalmers wash his body with good-smelling palm wine and rinse it with water from the Nile.

One of the embalmer's men makes a cut in the left side of the body and removes many of the internal organs. It is important to remove these because they are the first part of the body to decompose.The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are washed and packed in natron which will dry them out. The heart is not taken out of the body because it is the centre of intelligence and feeling and the man will need it in the afterlife.A long hook is used to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose. The body is now covered and stuffed with natron which will dry it out. All of the fluids, and rags from the embalming process will be saved and buried along with the body.After forty days the body is washed again with water from the Nile. Then it is covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.The dehydrated internal organs are wrapped in linen and returned to the body. The body is stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike. Finally the body is covered again with good-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped in linen.In the past, when the internal organs were removed from a body they were placed in hollow canopic jars.

Over many years the embalming practices changed and embalmers began returning internal organs to bodies after the organs had been dried in natron. However, solid wood or stone canopic jars were still buried with the mummy to symbolically protect the internal organs.     Imsety the human-headed god looks after the liver.Hapy the baboon-headed god looks after the lungsDuamutef the jackal-headed god looks after the stomachQebehsenuef the falcon-headed god looks after the intestines.First the head and neck are wrapped with strips of fine linen. Then the fingers and the toes are individually wrapped.

The arms and legs are wrapped separately. Between the layers of wrapping, the embalmers place amulets to protect the body in its journey through the underworld.This is the 'Isis knot' amulet which will protect the body.This is the 'Plummet' amulet which will keep the person balanced in the next life.A priest reads spells out loud while the mummy is being wrapped. These spells will help ward off evil spirits and help the deceased make the journey to the afterlife.

The arms and legs are tied together. A papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is placed between the wrapped hands.

More linen strips are wrapped around the body. At every layer, the bandages are painted with liquid resin that helps to glue the bandages together.

A cloth is wrapped around the body and a picture of the god Osiris is painted on its surface.


Finally, a large cloth is wrapped around the entire mummy. It is attached with strips of linen that run from the top to the bottom of the mummy, and around its middle.

A board of painted wood is placed on top of the mummy before the mummy is lowered into its coffin. The first coffin is then put inside a second coffin.

The funeral is held for the deceased and his family mourns his death.

A ritual called the 'Opening of the Mouth' is performed, allowing the deceased to eat and drink again.

Finally, the body and its coffins are placed inside a large stone sarcophagus in the tomb. Furniture, clothing, valuable objects, food and drink are arranged in the tomb for the deceased.

Now his body is ready for its journey through the underworld. There his heart will be judged by his good deeds on earth. If his heart is found to be pure he will be sent to live for all eternity in the beautiful 'Field of Reeds'.

The End

1. Cleansed, all organs are taken out.

2. Store the organs into various jars.

3. Place amulet on him/her.

4. Wrap the body up while a priest talks, and place a scroll on the body.

5. Wrap another layer.

6. Place the body in a coffin.

Le Tour De France


Le Tour De France is the best-known cycling race in the world. It is a 22 day circuit with 20 different stages. The route of Le Tour De France goes all around France and can run into neighbouring countries making the distance more than 3000km. Each stage is an individual race that normally goes from one town to another. Only the world’s best cycling teams are invited to participate in Le Tour De France. 20-22 teams are invited with 9 riders in each team.


The idea to form a stage race around France came from a chief cycling journalist who worked for L’Auto. The original plan was to have a five-week tour from May 31st -July 5th but this didn’t work because only 15 people entered the race. Henri Desgrange, the editor decided that they should cut the length to 19 days and also offered a daily allowance and that attracted 60 competitors. This included adventurous and even unemployed contesters. What attracted such a large audience was the nature of the race itself as well as the humble characteristics of the contesters. Considering the average length of the 6 stages were approximately 400km the newspaper became very successful and sold thousands more newspapers after the race than before it. Henri claimed that eight hundred and fifty four thousand copies were sold in 1933. The very first race was in 1903 and there has been 94 races ever since.


To make the race a little more exciting each race has three further classifications: the points, the best young rider and the mountains as well as winning the actual tour. Yellow jerseys are awarded in a ceremony after each stage to show who came first and Green jerseys are awarded to the person who has the most sprint points. The Polka-Dot jersey is awarded to the person who made the hardest assents.


Maurice won the first race and the person with the most wins is Lance Armstrong. He has won Le Tour De France 7 times consecutively. Eddy Merckx has won the most yellow jerseys wins, 96 to be exact. This year’s winner was Alberto Contador. Unfortunately the Australian racer Evan Cadel ended up coming second in Le Tour De France this year but he just recently came first in the Beijing time trail for next year’s Olympic.

The presintation was changed and all that.

4 cyclists died during Le Tour De France either by drugs or accidents. The newspaper L'Equipe accused Lance Armstrong of doping. You’ve probably heard of Lance Armstrong because he has won first place 7 times consecutively in Le Tour De France.

Do you want to become a Prime Minister? Why or why not?


I do not want to become a Prime Minister. There are many reasons for this such as too many arguments when a decision is made. It would be delightful to make fossil fuels prohibited and to use solar power instead to help the environment but as soon as one person decides to go against the Government the Media jumps in and starts to criticize the way the government is run. I would much rather to have another occupation than to be stressed and pressured all day long.



The song Saltwater is the song that I have chosen to write a response to. "'Saltwater' was co-written by a guy called Mark Spiro, his wife and Julian. I really like it because it’s very emotional and yet it also states most of the environmental issues.


My favourite verse is when hunger is mentioned when he writes ‘Why should one baby, feel so hungry she cries?’ and that sentence itself is very emotional and basically shows that the world is far from perfect even though “We can light the deepest ocean and send photographs of mars.’ This shows that humans are more interested in unknown things than helping to make the world a better place for everyone. This also shows us that hunger and starvation will always be in our world unless we hurry up and actually do something about it ourselves. It is also implied that poverty and over-population is the cause and consequence of famine and starvation.


I think that the very first verse ‘we are a rock revolving around a golden sun, we are a billion children, Rolled into one, so when I hear about a hole in the sky, Saltwater wells in my eyes.’ Means that we are all children on the same planet huddling together as we await our consequences that include a hole in the O-zone Layer caused because of the pollution that is still ‘living’ on the Earth right now. A simpler way to explain what I just said is that there is a hole in the o-zone layer. The fact that Julian Lennon’s wrote ‘We are a billion children rolled into one.’ means that the world is over-populated.


In the first verse it talks about deforestation by saying: ‘The forests have died” and then he mentions some more ingenuous things that humans have done such as ‘we climb the highest mountain and we can make the desert bloom, we are so ingenuous we can even walk on the moon.’


I think that the saddest verse in this depressing song is the chorus:  ‘I have lived for love and now that is not enough for the world I love is dying and now I’m crying and time is not a friend no friend of mine as friends we’re out of time and it’s slowly passing by right before our eyes.’ It’s quite self-explanatory and it basically means that the look of things or the AESTHITICS are changing and that the world is dying from all the pollution that we make. The thought that is the most depressing is that...(sign) unfortunately not many people care enough for the world to form a group and actually change the world simply because it is not a very easy task and that it requires a great deal of effort.


In the very last verse ‘ what will I think of me the day that I die? Saltwater wells in my eyes.’ Does not clearly state what Julian thinks but I think that he is stating that he will regret not being able to do anything for the world that he loves. He must be feeling regretful because all he can do is sing for the environment rather changing it.


I think that the song itself clearly expresses the environmental issues as well as the personal feelings of the composer himself. These songs that Julian Lennon write move me and I think that it’s his personal best so I am very grateful to him for even bothering to write on a topic that normally bores most people.



                                                                                      By Belladonna

So what's the best? I like these colours!!!