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Latin Lesson 1

Latin Parts of Speech Overview

The language of Latin was used by the ancient Romans with the same parts of speech as English.

The Classification of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are all present. Like English, numerals are expressed in nouns milia (thousands), adjectives unus (one), and adverbs semel (once). There are no articles in Latin.

Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns are grouped in Declensions which agree in Number and Case. Latin has a total of five declensions.

Number
SINGULAR: puella (girl)
PLURAL:     puellae (girls)

Case  Total of 6
Nominative, The subject case
Vocative, The case of address
Accusative, the object case
Genitive, the of case
Dative, The to or for case
Ablative, the from, by, in or with case

In Latin, Genders are distinguished as male, female, and neuter. 

Verbs The Latin Verb has:
The Finite Verb
THREE PERSONS - First, Second, and Third
TWO NUMBERS - Singular and Plural
SIX TENSES - Present, Future, Past Imperfect, Perfect, Future Perfect, and Pluperfect
THREE MOODS - Indicative (Verbs where the action is done by the subject eg. The teacher teaches the students, Imperative (Commands), Subjunctive (Verbs where the action is done to the subject eg. The teacher is being taught by the students, wishes, exhortations)
The Infinite Verb
Infinitives - verbal substantives
Three Participles - verbal adjectives
The Gerund and Gerundive
Two Supines - verbal substantives
The Voices - Active, Passive

Irregular Verbs: There are always exceptions to every rule and the same goes for verbs.

Vocabulary list:
puella - girl
ancilla - slave girl
puer - boy
soror - sister
pater - father
mater - mother
canis - dog
cena - dinner
cibus - food
fortis - brave
voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum - I call
moneo, monere, monui, monentum - I warn
rego, regere, rexi, rectum - I rule
audio, audire, audivi, auditum - I hear
capio, capere, cepi, captum - I capture

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Comments

( 1 comment — Leave a comment )
666_blessings
May. 2nd, 2012 01:07 pm (UTC)
Oh dear lord! This takes me right back to first year uni and Latin 1001 and 1002: the only subjects I was ever in danger of actually failing XD
( 1 comment — Leave a comment )